Frequently Asked Questions
- I want to know more about various astronomical topics. Can you help?
- I would like to know about the distribution of astronomers in my country, and also how they distribute on gender.
- Can I use the IAU videos and images?
- Can I buy a star?
- I have written a scientific paper detailing a new theory. Can you please review it?
- I have a query about the public vote to name Pluto’s new moons
- Can the IAU rename this deep-sky object?
- I observed an object in the sky. Can you please identify it?
- What global events exist to celebrate astronomy?
- Can you advise me about pursuing a career in astronomy research?
- Why isn’t Pluto a planet?
- How can you calculate the position of the planets on a specific date?
- Is it correct to refer to a natural satellite around a planet other than the Earth as a “moon”?
- Where can I verify the name of a planetary feature and the origin of its name?
- Why doesn't the Moon have a name?
- Is the Sun at the center of our Solar System?
- Should I report the astronomical transient to the CBAT or the TNS?
- How can I become a member of the IAU?
- Can I propose names for minor planets?
- Can we make a donation to the IAU to honour somebody?
- What is the IAU stance and opinion on the TMT on the summit of Mauna Kea?
- I took an astronomical image. Can you publish my photo?
- How are planetary feature names approved, and can I suggest a name?
- Can I use the IAU logo on my materials?
- Why does the IAU use the terms "China Nanjing" and "China Taipei" for national membership?
- Where can I find information about every constellation?
- Is there a list of minor planet discoverers?
- I have found a meteorite. Can IAU help me to verify it?
- How much do meteorites cost and how much can they be sold for?
- Where can I subscribe to the Communicating Astronomy with the Public (CAP) Journal?
- Where can I find the list of IAU star names?
- Where can I find information about lunar craters?
- Is there an IAU archive?
Q1: I want to know more about various astronomical topics. Can you help?
A: Unfortunately we don't have the manpower to answer emails about specific astronomical topics. However, there are several websites that can give you detailed information if you post a question. For example:
Q2: I would like to know about the distribution of astronomers in my country, and also how they are distributed by gender.
A: Please take a look at the web page called Geographical Distribution of Individual Members, which is updated for every new member. http://iau.org/administration/membership/individual/distribution/
Q3: Can I use the IAU videos and images?
A: Yes, the IAU videos and images are released under a Creative Commons license, so yes you can use it for your purpose as long as you credit the IAU. Please see the full conditions on this webpage: https://www.iau.org/copyright/
Q4: Can I buy a star?
A: The IAU dissociates itself entirely from the commercial practice of "selling" fictitious star names or "real estate" on other planets or moons in the Solar System.
The IAU doesn't offer a star-naming service. There is no official alternative to the commercial practice of "selling" fictitious star names or "real estate" on other planets or moons in the Solar System. Read more on: https://www.iau.org/public/buying_star_names/ and https://www.iau.org/public/naming/
If you have any questions regarding star naming, please feel free to contact: firstname.lastname@example.org
Q5: I have written a scientific paper detailing a new theory. Can you please review it?
A: The IAU only has one peer-reviewed journal for research papers and articles concerning astronomy public outreach, which is called “Communicating Astronomy with the Public journal” (www.capjournal.org). We cannot accept scientific papers. Instead, we recommend that you submit your paper to a scientific publisher, such as Nature (www.nature.com/nature/index.html), Science (www.sciencemag.org/journals), Astronomy & Astrophysics (www.aanda.org/), IOP Science (http://iopscience.iop.org/1538-3881) and AAS (http://aas.org/publications/publications). (Please note that this list is not exhaustive.) Additionally, one can always send an article to: http://www.skyandtelescope.com/
Q6: I have a query about the public vote to name Pluto’s new moons
A: The poll was conducted by the SETI Institute and by Dr. Mark Showalter on behalf of the P4/P5 discovery team. It is not affiliated with the International Astronomical Union (IAU).
The IAU has been the arbiter of planetary and satellite nomenclature since its inception in 1919. The various IAU Working Groups normally handle this process. For more information, please see: https://www.iau.org/public/naming/
Q7: Can the IAU rename this deep-sky object?
A: The official name for deep-sky objects involves an acronym that specifies the catalogue or collection or sources, followed by a unique sequence (usually of numerical characters). Examples include NGC 2392 and IC 349.
Sometimes objects are referred to by common names. for example, NGC 2392 is commonly known as the Eskimo Nebula. Common names for deep-sky objects are usually assigned for either the constellation where the object is situated, or to honor the discoverer, or to describe the object's appearance in a way easy to remember; but there are currently no rules for assigning common names.
For more information, please see: www.iau.org/public/naming/
Q8: I observed an object in the sky. Can you please identify it?
A: Unfortunately, at this time we are unable to investigate an individual's observations. We recommend that you contact your local amateur astronomy club and attend one of their observing sessions to find out more information.
List of Astronomy Clubs by Country:
Q9: What global events exist to celebrate astronomy?
A: There are many global celebrations of astronomy and space. A short list is given below:
Q10: Can you advise me about pursuing a career in astronomy research?
A: A good background in maths, physics, chemistry and computer science is required to be a modern astronomer — this means a scientific high school curriculum followed by earning a physics or maths or engineering university degree and a PhD in astronomy or astrophysics.
Read more at: https://www.iau.org/public/careers/
Q11: Why isn’t Pluto a planet?
A: The IAU has been responsible for the naming and nomenclature of planetary bodies and their satellites since the early 1900s.
The first draft proposal for the definition of a planet was debated vigorously by astronomers at the 2006 IAU General Assembly in Prague. By the end of the Prague General Assembly, its members voted that the Resolution B5 on the definition of a planet in the Solar System would be as follows:
A celestial body that (a) is in orbit around the Sun, (b) has sufficient mass for its self-gravity to overcome rigid body forces so that it assumes a hydrostatic equilibrium (nearly round) shape, and (c) has cleared the neighbourhood around its orbit.
Pluto does not satisfy this criteria, and it is therefore not a planet, but a dwarf planet. For more information, please read: https://www.iau.org/public/pluto/
Q12: How can you calculate the position of the planets on a specific date?
A: NASA's JPL Horizons website has an online tool for calculating the position of planets: http://ssd.jpl.nasa.gov/horizons.cgi For years earlier than 1000, include 'AD' or 'BC' in the ‘Time Span’ field.
Q13: Is it correct to refer to a natural satellite around a planet other than the Earth as a “moon”?
A: It is perfectly acceptable to refer to natural satellites of other planets as "moons". However, the IAU formally recommends that only the Earth's natural satellite, the Moon, should start with a capital letter.
Q14: Where can I verify the name of a planetary feature and the origin of its name?
A: Approved names for planetary features are entered into the Gazetteer of Planetary Nomenclature and added to the following website:http://planetarynames.wr.usgs.gov/
Read more on: https://www.iau.org/public/themes/naming/
Q15: Why doesn't the Moon have a name?
A: The Moon does, of course, have a name - the Moon. It is known by many names in various languages - Luna (Latin, Spanish, Italian, and Russian), Mond (German), Lune (French), etc. Our moon was the first known moon. When we discovered that other planets had moons, they were given different names in order to distinguish them from our moon. For more information, please read: https://www.iau.org/public/themes/our_moon/
Q16: Is the Sun at the center of the Solar System?
A: Actually the Sun is not precisely at the centre of the Solar System. Both planets and the Sun orbit a barycentre — the center of mass of two or more bodies that are orbiting each other. For less massive bodies, this centre lies within the Sun. In the case of the largest planet in our system, Jupiter, this point is located just outside the Sun's surface. Although the Sun is not at the exact centre of the orbiting system, the definition "A planet is a celestial body that is in orbit around the Sun" still applies.
Q17: Should I report the astronomical transient to the CBAT or the TNS?
A: The IAU Transient Name Server (TNS) is the only official tool. Use of Central Bureau for Astronomical Telegrams (CBAT) for transients was discontinued on Jan 1, 2016.
Q18: How can I become a member of the IAU?
A: You can find the details on this page.
Q19: Can I propose names for minor planets?
A: Names for minor planets are proposed by the discoverer of a specific object after the object is numbered. You may wish to contact some of the minor planet discoverers or discovery programs, as they may have unnamed numbered asteroids.
Q20: Can we make a donation to the IAU to honour somebody?
A: The IAU Office of Astronomy for Development (OAD) coordinates various activities all around the world that are related to using astronomy to influence UN Sustainable Development Goals. Any donations will increase the OAD’s effectiveness. Depending on the amount you would like to offer, we can suggest a range of possibilities that could be named after the person you wish to honour. Please contact the OAD for details.
Q21: What is the IAU stance and opinion on the TMT on the summit of Mauna Kea?
A: While we are aware of the current situation regarding the construction of the Thirty Meter Telescope and understand that it is a deeply complex and sensitive issue, our goal is to advance astronomical science and unite communities internationally. Unfortunately, the IAU does not offer opinions about individual telescope projects. The IAU is committed to sharing astronomy with communities around the world. We strive to make astronomy accessible for both astronomers and all of humankind. We believe that telescopes and observatories are both professional tools for astronomers and windows for all to the wonders of the Universe.
Q22: I took an astronomical image. Can you publish my photo?
A: The IAU doesn’t publish astronomical images. You may check with different astronomy magazines or the Astronomy Picture of the Day or The World at Night pages.
Q23: How are planetary feature names approved, and can I suggest a name?
A: This page from the IAU Working Group for Planetary System Nomenclature (WGPSN) describes the process. If you are a member of the science community and have a specific scientific need to name a planetary surface feature, you can request that the feature be named by filling out the Name Request Form.
Q24: Can I use the IAU logo on my materials?
A: The IAU's logo is protected and may not be used or reproduced without the prior and individual written consent of IAU.
Q25: Why does the IAU use the terms "China Nanjing" and "China Taipei" for national membership?
A: The "China-Nanjing" and "China-Taipei" denominations used in the IAU refer to the seats of the respective astronomical societies. Astronomers (including amateurs) in both geographical areas follow the official agreement on these denominations, which was signed by both parties and approved by the IAU General Assembly in 1982.
Q26: Where can I find information about every constellation?
A: We have a dedicated page about constellations here.
Q27: Is there a list of minor planet discoverers?
A: The numbered minor planets have been discovered by a large number of individuals and teams. Lists of the discovery statistics are available ordered by number of discoveries and alphabetically. Also available is a list of the number of discoveries made at the most prolific discovery sites.
Q28: I have found a meteorite. Can IAU help me to verify it?
A: The IAU doesn't offer any meteorite identification services. However, you might find it helpful to check out this page http://meteorite-identification.com/verification.html, and also to look for geological laboratories on a national level.
Q29: How much do meteorites cost and how much can they be sold for?
A: The IAU is not associated with any commercial meteorite trade. However, you can easily find such information on the internet.
Q30: Where can I subscribe to the Communicating Astronomy with the Public (CAP) Journal?
A: You can find all the electronic copies of the Journal at https://www.capjournal.org/issues/index.php and the subscription form here https://www.capjournal.org/subscription.php
Q31: Where can I find the list of IAU star names?
A: You can find the list here https://www.iau.org/public/themes/naming_stars/
Q32: Where can I find information about lunar craters?
A: You can find the information here https://planetarynames.wr.usgs.gov/Page/MOON/target
Q33: Is there an IAU archive?
A: The IAU archives are housed in the Institut d'Astrophysique de Paris (IAP) where the IAU Secretariat is housed as well. For a time some of our archives were stored at the Academie des Sciences. But their status is in flux as many documents are now being returned to us after several years during which they were being digitized by Cambridge abroad for our webpages. You can also find all the IAU Proceedings online.